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The reasons of decrease in number of a black polecat are up to the end not clear. Perhaps, it is caused by the considerable changes of biotopes connected with an agriculture intensification and also it is probable, big contamination helminths (a nematode of the sorts Filaroides and Skrjabingulus) affects. Decrease in number of a forest marten and ermine, first of all, is connected with their trade. In those parts of an area where there is a counterfeit trade of these types, high number it is not observed.

In tooth system there are all categories of teeth: cutters – I (incisivi), canines – C (canini), preradical – P (praemolares) and radical – M (molares). Molars at the majority of types ostrobugorchaty, at some types in connection with features of food molars tupobugorchaty. The fourth top preradical and first lower radical are developed in the form of typical injurious teeth.

Due to the direct prosecution (valuable fur types) or replacement from cultural areas areas of some forms quite strongly changed. However the area of family in general recently, in essence, did not change.

Biotopichesky placement does not cause an intense competition in connection with variety of conditions for their dwelling, and also with adaptation of some types marten to the settlement of the person (the suburb of settlements, country constructions: caress, ermine, black polecat, stone martens.

Fenny alder thickets, thickets of coast of the rivers and lakes, boggy sites of the wood, old gardens belong to the main habitats. The black polecat well adapted to conditions the changed person, finding reliable shelters for creation of shelters here, and also rather good fodder conditions. The analysis of biographical particulars showed that the black polecat mainly occupies those station which are anyway connected with housing of the person (a garden, the settlement, the thrown farms). We noted cases of detection of temporary and constant shelters of a polecat in various places: in heaps of the cut-off branches, in thickets of canes, in economic rooms.

Keywords: the marten; ermine (Mustela erminea L.); stone marten (Martes foina Ersl.); forest marten (Martes martes L.); caress (Mustela nivalis L.); black polecat (Mustela putorius L.); badger (Meles meles L.); biotopichesky distribution; shelters; food; daily activity; reproduction and molt.

Daily activity of an ermine, as well as the majority of types of small predators, is defined first of all, time of activity of its victim and weather conditions. As the main diet is made by mouse-like rodents who are active mainly in morning and evening hours,

Biotopichesky and statsialny placement showed that all types registered by us meet in forests, but thus one live directly in their depth (a forest marten, a badger), others prefer edges of the wood and a forest belt (a black polecat, a stone marten, an ermine, caress. The black polecat more other types marten (a stone marten, caress, an ermine) adapted to lodge in places strongly changed under the influence of an anthropogenous factor.

Caress has no constant holes and shelters. On dwelling sites she regularly visits shelters which can be in holes of various mouse-like rodents, heaps of brushwood and dead wood, ricks, haystacks. Caress often settles in blockages of stones, in hollows, in ruins, in holes,